Background: "Head Start"III, was a prospective clinical trial using intensive induction followed by myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) to either avoid or reduce the dose/volume of irradiation in young children with medulloblastoma. Methods: Following surgery, patients received 5 cycles of induction followed by myeloablative chemotherapy using carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide with AuHCR. Irradiation was reserved for children >6 years old at diagnosis or with residual tumor post-induction. Results: Between 2003 and 2009, 92 children <10 years old with medulloblastoma were enrolled. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates (±SE) were 46 ± 5% and 62 ± 5% for all patients, 61 ± 8% and 77 ± 7% for localized medulloblastoma, and 35 ± 7% and 52 ± 7% for disseminated patients. Nodular/desmoplastic (ND) medulloblastoma patients had 5-year EFS and OS (±SE) rates of 89 ± 6% and 89 ± 6% compared with 26 ± 6% and 53 ± 7% for classic and 38 ± 13% and 46 ± 14% for large-cell/anaplastic (LCA) medulloblastoma, respectively. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, histology was the only significant independent predictor of EFS after adjusting for stage, extent of resection, regimen, age, and sex (P <0.0001). Five-year irradiation-free EFS was 78 ± 8% for ND and 21 ± 5% for classic/LCA medulloblastoma patients. Myelosuppression was the most common toxicity, with 2 toxic deaths. Twenty-four survivors completed neurocognitive evaluation at a mean of 4.9 years post-diagnosis. IQ and memory scores were within average range overall, whereas processing speed and adaptive functioning were low-average. Conclusion: We report excellent survival and preservation of mean IQ and memory for young children with ND medulloblastoma using high-dose chemotherapy, with most patients surviving without irradiation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2020|
- myeloablative chemotherapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cancer Research