Exciplex and radical ion intermediates in the photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene with 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

Frederick D Lewis*, Robert J. DeVoe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, first reported by Mizuno, Pac and Sakurai, has been reinvestigated. The formation of a [2+2]-cycloadduct via a singlet exciplex is the exclusive reaction in the nonpolar solvents benzene and ethyl acetate. Photochemical behavior in polar solvents is far more complicated than previously reported. Mechanisms consistent with the effects of solvent polarity, methanol concentration, methanol deuteration, and light intensity upon product yields are proposed. Formation of a 9-cyanophenthrene anion radical and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene cation radical is the primary photoinitiated process in polar solvent. The cation radical can undergo deprotonation to yield an allyl radical or nucleophilic attack by methanol to yield a methoxyalkyl radical. Covalent bonding of these radicals and the 9-cyanophenanthrene anion radical gives rise to the acyclic adducts obtained in polar solvents. The anion radical can also be protonated, leading ultimately to the formation of 9,10-dihydro-9-cyanophenanthrene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1069-1077
Number of pages9
JournalTetrahedron
Volume38
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1982

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Photochemical reactions
Ions
Anions
Methanol
Cations
Deprotonation
Benzene
2,3-dimethyl-2-butene
9-cyanophenanthrene
Light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Exciplex and radical ion intermediates in the photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene with 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene",
abstract = "The photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, first reported by Mizuno, Pac and Sakurai, has been reinvestigated. The formation of a [2+2]-cycloadduct via a singlet exciplex is the exclusive reaction in the nonpolar solvents benzene and ethyl acetate. Photochemical behavior in polar solvents is far more complicated than previously reported. Mechanisms consistent with the effects of solvent polarity, methanol concentration, methanol deuteration, and light intensity upon product yields are proposed. Formation of a 9-cyanophenthrene anion radical and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene cation radical is the primary photoinitiated process in polar solvent. The cation radical can undergo deprotonation to yield an allyl radical or nucleophilic attack by methanol to yield a methoxyalkyl radical. Covalent bonding of these radicals and the 9-cyanophenanthrene anion radical gives rise to the acyclic adducts obtained in polar solvents. The anion radical can also be protonated, leading ultimately to the formation of 9,10-dihydro-9-cyanophenanthrene.",
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Exciplex and radical ion intermediates in the photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene with 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene. / Lewis, Frederick D; DeVoe, Robert J.

In: Tetrahedron, Vol. 38, No. 8, 01.01.1982, p. 1069-1077.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, first reported by Mizuno, Pac and Sakurai, has been reinvestigated. The formation of a [2+2]-cycloadduct via a singlet exciplex is the exclusive reaction in the nonpolar solvents benzene and ethyl acetate. Photochemical behavior in polar solvents is far more complicated than previously reported. Mechanisms consistent with the effects of solvent polarity, methanol concentration, methanol deuteration, and light intensity upon product yields are proposed. Formation of a 9-cyanophenthrene anion radical and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene cation radical is the primary photoinitiated process in polar solvent. The cation radical can undergo deprotonation to yield an allyl radical or nucleophilic attack by methanol to yield a methoxyalkyl radical. Covalent bonding of these radicals and the 9-cyanophenanthrene anion radical gives rise to the acyclic adducts obtained in polar solvents. The anion radical can also be protonated, leading ultimately to the formation of 9,10-dihydro-9-cyanophenanthrene.

AB - The photochemical reaction of 9-cyanophenanthrene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, first reported by Mizuno, Pac and Sakurai, has been reinvestigated. The formation of a [2+2]-cycloadduct via a singlet exciplex is the exclusive reaction in the nonpolar solvents benzene and ethyl acetate. Photochemical behavior in polar solvents is far more complicated than previously reported. Mechanisms consistent with the effects of solvent polarity, methanol concentration, methanol deuteration, and light intensity upon product yields are proposed. Formation of a 9-cyanophenthrene anion radical and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene cation radical is the primary photoinitiated process in polar solvent. The cation radical can undergo deprotonation to yield an allyl radical or nucleophilic attack by methanol to yield a methoxyalkyl radical. Covalent bonding of these radicals and the 9-cyanophenanthrene anion radical gives rise to the acyclic adducts obtained in polar solvents. The anion radical can also be protonated, leading ultimately to the formation of 9,10-dihydro-9-cyanophenanthrene.

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