EXIT-to-resection for fetuses with large lung masses and persistent mediastinal compression near birth

Darrell L. Cass*, Oluyinka O. Olutoye, Christopher I. Cassady, Irving J. Zamora, R. Todd Ivey, Nancy A. Ayres, Olutoyin A. Olutoye, Timothy C. Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Purpose To identify prenatal diagnostic features that will help select fetuses with lung masses (LM) who may benefit from ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure) as the preferred mode of delivery. Methods The CCAM-volume ratio (CVR), fetal treatment, and outcomes of all fetuses with LM evaluated between 2001 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Fetuses with hydrops or CVR > 1.6 were classified as high risk. Indications for fetal interventions included hydrops and heart failure, and indication for EXIT-to-resection was the finding of persistent mediastinal compression (PMC) near birth. Results Of 110 fetuses evaluated for LM, 78 were classified as low-risk. No fetus in this group had PMC near birth and none required perinatal treatment. Of 32 high-risk fetuses, 8 developed heart failure of which 4 survived (3 following fetal surgery). Nine high-risk fetuses with no PMC near birth were asymptomatic postnatally and treated electively. Sixteen high-risk fetuses had PMC near birth. All 9 babies with PMC treated with EXIT-to-resection did well with discharge at a median of 10 days post-operatively. All 7 fetuses treated without an EXIT developed respiratory distress following birth requiring an urgent operation; 2 died. Conclusion The EXIT-to-resection procedure is a favorable delivery approach for those fetuses with large LM and PMC near birth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-144
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • CCAM
  • Ex utero intrapartum treatment
  • Fetal lung mass
  • Fetal surgery
  • Prognostic factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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