Expanded graphite as superior anode for sodium-ion batteries

Yang Wen, Kai He, Yujie Zhu, Fudong Han, Yunhua Xu, Isamu Matsuda, Yoshitaka Ishii, John Cumings, Chunsheng Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1441 Scopus citations


Graphite, as the most common anode for commercial Li-ion batteries, has been reported to have a very low capacity when used as a Na-ion battery anode. It is well known that electrochemical insertion of Na+ into graphite is significantly hindered by the insufficient interlayer spacing. Here we report expanded graphite as a Na-ion battery anode. Prepared through a process of oxidation and partial reduction on graphite, expanded graphite has an enlarged interlayer lattice distance of 4.3A yet retains an analogous long-range-ordered layered structure to graphite. In situ transmission electron microscopy has demonstrated that the Na-ion can be reversibly inserted into and extracted from expanded graphite. Galvanostatic studies show that expanded graphite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 284mAhg-1 at a current density of 20mAg-1, maintain a capacity of 184mAhg-1 at 100mAg -1, and retain 73.92% of its capacity after 2,000 cycles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4033
JournalNature communications
StatePublished - Jun 4 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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