Experimentally validated predictions of thermal history and microhardness in laser-deposited Inconel 718 on carbon steel

Sarah J. Wolff, Zhengtao Gan, Stephen Lin, Jennifer L. Bennett, Wentao Yan, Gregory Hyatt, Kornel F. Ehmann, Gregory J. Wagner, Wing Kam Liu*, Jian Cao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Process−property relationships in additive manufacturing (AM) play critical roles in process control and rapid certification. In laser-based directed energy deposition, powder mass flow into the melt pool influences the cooling behavior and properties of a built part. This study develops predictive computational models that provide the microhardness of AM components processed with miscible dissimilar alloys, and then investigates the influence of varying process parameters on properties in experiments and modeling. Experimentally-determined clad dilution and microhardness results of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718 clads deposited onto 1045 carbon steel substrates are compared to the values from a computational thermo-fluid dynamics (CtFD) model. The numerical model considers the fluidic mechanisms of molten metal during powder deposition and the resulting transient melt pool geometry changes. The model also handles the change in thermo-physical properties caused by the composition mixture between the powder and substrate materials in the melt pool. Based on the computed temperature and velocity distributions in the melt pool, cooling rate, dilution of the melt pool and microhardenss are evaluated. The capability to predict thermal histories in such models is calibrated and validated with experimental thermal imaging and microstructures of additive manufactured clads. In addition, the roles of cooling rate and alloy composition on the microhardness are examined. The results show that variation in microhardness is dominated by composition mixture between the powder and substrate materials, rather than cooling behavior or dendrite arm spacing at liquid-solid interface in laser deposited Inconel 718 on AISI 1045 carbon steel.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)540-551
Number of pages12
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
StatePublished - May 2019


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Cooling rate
  • Inconel 718
  • Microhardness
  • Thermal-CFD modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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