Plasmonic biosensors based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanoparticles have been developed using both nanoparticle arrays and single nanoparticles. We introduce LSPR biosensing by describing the initial experiments performed using both model systems and disease biomarkers. LSPR shift-enhancement methods, exploitation of the short electromagnetic field decay length, and single nanoparticle sensors are discussed as pathways to further exploit the strengths of LSPR biosensing. Coupling molecular identification to LSPR spectroscopy is a significant aspect of biosensing. Therefore, examples from surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry are provided. This chapter highlights examples which emphasize the unique characteristics of LSPR biosensing.
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