Angiomyolipoma (AML) arises primarily from the kidney but may grow into the retroperitoneal space mimicking a primary retroperitoneal tumor. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy of AML, particularly the fat-predominant variant, may be difficult to distinguish from retroperitoneal well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) or lipoma. Commonly used immunomarkers, MDM2 and p16, have proven useful in diagnosing WDLS and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS), while HMB45 and Melan-A are melanocyte-related markers characteristically expressed in AML. In this study, we investigated the utility of MDM2 and p16 along with HMB45 and Melan-A immunohistochemical analysis in distinguishing AML from WDL/DDLS or lipoma. Immunohistochemically, AMLs demonstrated focal MDM2 expression (40% of cases) and focal/diffuse expression of p16 (60%). AMLs marked focally or diffusely with HMB45 (76% of cases) and Melan-A (96%). These latter two immunomarkers were not expressed in any of the WDLS/DDLSs or lipomas tested. WDLS/DDLSs showed focal/diffuse expression of MDM2 (91% of cases) and p16 (97%). While focal expression of MDM2 and p16 was observed in 14% and 67% of lipomas, respectively, no lipoma exhibited diffuse MDM2 positivity. In our hands, MDM2 expression by itself cannot exclude the diagnosis of AML or lipoma, and p16 alone is not helpful in separating AML and conventional lipoma from WDLS/DDLS. However, along with morphology, an immunohistochemical battery including HMB45, Melan-A, MDM2 and p16 are useful in distinguishing AML from WDLS/DDLS or lipoma. For equivocal cases, fluorescence in situ hybridization for MDM2 should be performed.
- Fluorescence in situ hybridization for MDM2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine