Primary invasive Aspergillus infection of the soft tissue is rare and typically affects immunocompromised patients in several distinct patterns of clinical presentation. In general, the role of surgery in the treatment of this disease is the removal of infected or necrotic tissue to prevent dissemination and mortality. However, the specific surgical recommendations have varied widely among reports due to the varied clinical circumstances in each series. The authors present the case of a patient with a primary invasive Aspergillus infection. They review the reported surgical experience with this disease, and discuss outcomes and surgical approaches in the context of several variations in clinical presentation. In all situations, antifungal therapy and prompt surgical intervention are critical in treating these initially localized but potentially lethal infections. The extent of intervention can range from minor debridement to amputation, and is based on the presence of persistent immunocompromise, the presence and extent of tissue necrosis, and the rate of progression during antifungal therapy.
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