External ear reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia

Akira Yamada*, Koichi Ueda, Reiko Yorozuya-Shibazaki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Restoration of a missing external ear is important for the child/adult with craniofacial deformities to achieve balance and harmony of the face and head. Ear reconstruction is not an isolated requirement, however. For 2 reasons, we believe that external ear reconstruction is an integral part of craniofacial reconstruction: (1) the auricle is located, not in the face mask, but just outside the face mask, and projects onto the posterior part of the temporal bone; and (2) isolated microtia may be an early clinical marker of hemifacial microsomia. This is the first English-language article describing the specific requirement for external ear reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia. It may also be the first article to describe the long-term follow-up of 2-stage ear reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia. After reviewing the long-term results, we offer recommendations on the management of microtia in hemifacial microsomia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1787-1793
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number8 SUPPL. 2
StatePublished - 2009


  • Ear reconstruction
  • Hemifacial microsomia
  • Microtia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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