TY - JOUR

T1 - Extracting black-hole rotational energy

T2 - The generalized Penrose process

AU - Lasota, J. P.

AU - Gourgoulhon, E.

AU - Abramowicz, M.

AU - Tchekhovskoy, A.

AU - Narayan, R.

PY - 2014/1/31

Y1 - 2014/1/31

N2 - In the case involving particles, the necessary and sufficient condition for the Penrose process to extract energy from a rotating black hole is absorption of particles with negative energies and angular momenta. No torque at the black-hole horizon occurs. In this article we consider the case of arbitrary fields or matter described by an unspecified, general energy-momentum tensor Tμν and show that the necessary and sufficient condition for extraction of a black hole's rotational energy is analogous to that in the mechanical Penrose process: absorption of negative energy and negative angular momentum. We also show that a necessary condition for the Penrose process to occur is for the Noether current (the conserved energy-momentum density vector) to be spacelike or past directed (timelike or null) on some part of the horizon. In the particle case, our general criterion for the occurrence of a Penrose process reproduces the standard result. In the case of relativistic jet-producing "magnetically arrested disks," we show that the negative energy and angular-momentum absorption condition is obeyed when the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is at work, and hence the high energy extraction efficiency up to ∼300% found in recent numerical simulations of such accretion flows results from tapping the black hole's rotational energy through the Penrose process. We show how black-hole rotational energy extraction works in this case by describing the Penrose process in terms of the Noether current.

AB - In the case involving particles, the necessary and sufficient condition for the Penrose process to extract energy from a rotating black hole is absorption of particles with negative energies and angular momenta. No torque at the black-hole horizon occurs. In this article we consider the case of arbitrary fields or matter described by an unspecified, general energy-momentum tensor Tμν and show that the necessary and sufficient condition for extraction of a black hole's rotational energy is analogous to that in the mechanical Penrose process: absorption of negative energy and negative angular momentum. We also show that a necessary condition for the Penrose process to occur is for the Noether current (the conserved energy-momentum density vector) to be spacelike or past directed (timelike or null) on some part of the horizon. In the particle case, our general criterion for the occurrence of a Penrose process reproduces the standard result. In the case of relativistic jet-producing "magnetically arrested disks," we show that the negative energy and angular-momentum absorption condition is obeyed when the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is at work, and hence the high energy extraction efficiency up to ∼300% found in recent numerical simulations of such accretion flows results from tapping the black hole's rotational energy through the Penrose process. We show how black-hole rotational energy extraction works in this case by describing the Penrose process in terms of the Noether current.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.024041

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.024041

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84894536733

VL - 89

JO - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

JF - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

SN - 1550-7998

IS - 2

M1 - 024041

ER -