Factor Analysis of Negative Symptom Items in the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes

Matilda Azis*, Gregory P. Strauss, Elaine Walker, William Revelle, Richard Zinbarg, Vijay Mittal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Background: Negative symptoms occur early in the clinical high risk (CHR) state and indicate increased risk of conversion to psychotic disorder and poor functional outcome. However, while the negative symptom domain has shown to be parsimoniously explained by a 2-factor construct in schizophrenia, there has yet to be an established factor structure of negative symptoms in CHR. Methods: 214 individuals meeting the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) criteria for CHR were recruited through 3 active research programs in the United States. Exploratory Factor Analysis was conducted on the 6 negative symptom items of the SIPS, and factors were evaluated with respect to functional outcome and depression. Results: Factor analysis indicated a 2-factor hierarchical model with 2 negative symptom dimensions reflecting volition (Occupational Functioning and Avolition) and emotion (Expression of Emotion, Experience of Emotion and Social Anhedonia). Linear Regression showed that the emotion factor was associated with poor social function, and the volition factor was associated with poor role function and depression. Conclusions: Similar to factor solutions identified in adults diagnosed with psychotic disorders, results indicated that the SIPS negative symptom subscale is not a unidimensional construct. Rather, the SIPS negative subscale has 2 distinct factors that have different associations with clinical outcome and should be interpreted independently. Results have significant relevance for informing the valid assessment and conceptual interpretation of early clinical phenomenology in the psychosis prodrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1042-1050
Number of pages9
JournalSchizophrenia bulletin
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • At Risk Mental State
  • clinical high risk for psychosis
  • psychosis
  • schizophrenia
  • ultra high risk for psychosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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