Factor Analysis of the Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and Healthy Controls

Nhu N. Tran*, Jay Desai, Jodie K. Votava-Smith, Mary Lynn Brecht, Douglas L. Vanderbilt, Ashok Panigrahy, Liza Mackintosh, Kenneth M. Brady, Bradley S. Peterson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Administration of the Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (ENNAS) can be time-consuming, and items can be highly correlated. We aimed to determine: (1) its factor analytic structure; (2) the validity of the factor structure; and (3) the associations of physiologic measures with factor scores. Methods: A factor analysis reduced 21 ENNAS items into 5 factors in 57 congenital heart disease (CHD) and 35 healthy infants. Multiple linear regressions examined the association of factor scores with group, gestational age, and physiologic variables. Results: 5-factor solution: 1 (Orienting Reflex), 2 (Extensor Axial Tone), 3 (Primitive Reflexes), 4 (Flexor Tone), 5 (Reflexive Tone Around Extremity Joints). Moderate to strong evidence supported: face, discriminant, and construct validity of these factors, with Factor 2 having the strongest. Conclusions: Components of Factor 2 may provide similar information about neonatal development, thus reducing the time for and burden of administration for researchers and clinicians.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)851-863
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of child neurology
Volume37
Issue number10-11
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale
  • congenital heart disease
  • developmental outcomes
  • factor analytic structure
  • infants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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