Factor structure of the Ruminative Responses Scale: A community-sample study

James W Griffith, Filip Raes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


The 10-item Ruminative Responses Scale is used to measure two facets of rumination: brooding and reflection. These subscales are used to seek differential correlations with other variables of interest (e.g., depression). The validity of these facets, however, is questionable because brooding and reflection were distinguished based on factor analyses, but subsequent analyses have been inconsistent. We investigated these facets using factor analyses in a large community-based sample (N = 625). Other measures of rumination and depression were used as criteria for validity analyses. Only the brooding items formed a robust scale. A consistent reflection factor did not emerge. Brooding showed convergent validity with other measures of rumination as well as depression, all rs > .4. Brooding was also higher among participants with a history of depression compared with never-depressed participants. Implications for the interpretation of past research and for conducting future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-253
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015


  • Brooding
  • Reflection
  • RRS
  • Rumination
  • Ruminative Responses Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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