Factors associated with degree of atopy in Latino children in a nationwide pediatric sample: The Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Asthmatics (GALA II) study

Rajesh Kumar*, Elizabeth A. Nguyen, Lindsey A. Roth, Sam S. Oh, Christopher R. Gignoux, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Karla Sandoval, Rosenda I. Peñaloza-Espinosa, Marisol López-López, Pedro C. Avila, Harold J. Farber, Haig Tcheurekdjian, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Jose R. Rodriguez-Santana, Denise Serebrisky, Shannon M. Thyne, L. Keoki Williams, Cheryl WinklerCarlos D. Bustamante, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, Luisa N. Borrell, Esteban G. Burchard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Atopy varies by ethnicity, even within Latino groups. This variation might be due to environmental, sociocultural, or genetic factors. Objective: We sought to examine risk factors for atopy within a nationwide study of US Latino children with and without asthma. Methods: Aeroallergen skin test responses were analyzed in 1830 US Latino subjects. Key determinants of atopy included country/region of origin, generation in the United States, acculturation, genetic ancestry, and site to which subjects migrated. Serial multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regressions stratified by asthma status examined the association of each key determinant variable with the number of positive skin test responses. In addition, the independent effect of each key variable was determined by including all key variables in the final models. Results: In baseline analyses African ancestry was associated with 3 times (95% CI, 1.62-5.57) as many positive skin test responses in asthmatic participants and 3.26 times (95% CI, 1.02-10.39) as many positive skin test responses in control participants. Generation and recruitment site were also associated with atopy in crude models. In final models adjusted for key variables, asthmatic patients of Puerto Rican (exp[β] [95% CI], 1.31 [1.02-1.69]) and mixed (exp[β] [95% CI], 1.27 [1.03-1.56]) ethnicity had a greater probability of positive skin test responses compared with Mexican asthmatic patients. Ancestry associations were abrogated by recruitment site but not region of origin. Conclusions: Puerto Rican ethnicity and mixed origin were associated with degree of atopy within US Latino children with asthma. African ancestry was not associated with degree of atopy after adjusting for recruitment site. Local environment variation, represented by site, was associated with degree of sensitization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)896-905.e1
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Latino
  • aeroallergen
  • atopy
  • genetic ancestry
  • immigration
  • region of origin
  • skin test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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