Factors associated with depressive symptoms and use of antidepressant medications among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and hispanic-CRIC studies

Michael J. Fischer*, Dawei Xie, Neil Jordan, Willem J. Kop, Marie Krousel-Wood, Manjula Kurella Tamura, John W. Kusek, Virginia Ford, Leigh K. Rosen, Louise Strauss, Valerie L. Teal, Kristine Yaffe, Neil R. Powe, James P. Lash

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Background: Depressive symptoms are correlated with poor health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, severity, and treatment of depressive symptoms and potential risk factors, including level of kidney function, in diverse populations with CKD have not been well studied. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Settings & Participants: Participants at enrollment into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies. CRIC enrolled Hispanics and non-Hispanics at 7 centers in 2003-2007, and H-CRIC enrolled Hispanics at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008. Measurement: Depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Predictors: Demographic and clinical factors. Outcomes: Elevated depressive symptoms (BDI score <11) and antidepressant medication use. Results: Of 3,853 participants, 27.4% had evidence of elevated depressive symptoms and 18.2% were using antidepressant medications; 31.0% of persons with elevated depressive symptoms were using antidepressants. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms varied by level of kidney function: 23.6% for participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 33.8% of those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2. Lower eGFR (OR per 10-mL/min/1.73 m 2 decrease, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17), and non-Hispanic black race (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16-1.74) were each associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms after controlling for other factors. In regression analyses incorporating BDI score, whereas female sex was associated with greater odds of antidepressant use, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and higher urine albumin levels were associated with decreased odds of antidepressant use (P < 0.05 for each). Limitations: Absence of clinical diagnosis of depression and use of nonpharmacologic treatments. Conclusions: Although elevated depressive symptoms were common in individuals with CKD, use of antidepressant medications is low. Individuals of racial and ethnic minority background and with more advanced CKD had a greater burden of elevated depressive symptoms and lower use of antidepressant medications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-38
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2012


  • Depression
  • antidepressants
  • chronic kidney disease
  • disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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