Factors Associated with Time to Conversion from Active Surveillance to Treatment for Prostate Cancer in a Multi-Institutional Cohort

Lauren Folgosa Cooley, Adaeze A. Emeka, Travis J. Meyers, Phillip R. Cooper, Daniel W. Lin, Antonio Finelli, James A. Eastham, Christopher J. Logothetis, Leonard S. Marks, Danny Vesprini, S. Larry Goldenberg, Celestia S. Higano, Christian P. Pavlovich, June M. Chan, Todd M. Morgan, Eric A. Klein, Daniel A. Barocas, Stacy Loeb, Brian T. Helfand, Denise M. ScholtensJohn S. Witte, William J. Catalona

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


PURPOSE: We examined the demographic and clinicopathological parameters associated with the time to convert from active surveillance to treatment among men with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional cohort of 7,279 patients managed with active surveillance had data and biospecimens collected for germline genetic analyses. RESULTS: Of 6,775 men included in the analysis, 2,260 (33.4%) converted to treatment at a median followup of 6.7 years. Earlier conversion was associated with higher Gleason grade groups (GG2 vs GG1 adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.36-1.82; ≥GG3 vs GG1 aHR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29-2.43), serum prostate specific antigen concentrations (aHR per 5 ng/ml increment 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.25), tumor stages (cT2 vs cT1 aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.41-1.77; ≥cT3 vs cT1 aHR 4.36, 95% CI 3.19-5.96) and number of cancerous biopsy cores (3 vs 1-2 cores aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.37-1.84; ≥4 vs 1-2 cores aHR 3.29, 95% CI 2.94-3.69), and younger age (age continuous per 5-year increase aHR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). Patients with high-volume GG1 tumors had a shorter interval to conversion than those with low-volume GG1 tumors and behaved like the higher-risk patients. We found no significant association between the time to conversion and self-reported race or genetic ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: A shorter time to conversion from active surveillance to treatment was associated with higher-risk clinicopathological tumor features. Furthermore, patients with high-volume GG1 tumors behaved similarly to those with intermediate and high-risk tumors. An exploratory analysis of self-reported race and genetic ancestry revealed no association with the time to conversion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1147-1156
Number of pages10
JournalThe Journal of urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • human genetics
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • race factors
  • watchful waiting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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