Familiality of Gender Nonconformity Among Homosexual Men

J. Michael Bailey*, Gerulf Rieger, Ritesha S. Krishnappa, Alana B. Kolundzija, Khytam Dawood, Alan R. Sanders

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We examined whether recalled childhood gender nonconformity and self-reported adult gender nonconformity is familial, using data from 1154 families selected for having at least two homosexual brothers. Specifically, we examined the extent to which homosexual men’s variation in gender nonconformity runs in families by examining pairs of genetic brothers who were both homosexual (N = 672–697 full sibling concordant pairs). We also examined similarity between homosexual and heterosexual brothers (N = 79–82 full sibling discordant pairs). Consistent with past studies, concordant pairs yielded modest positive correlations consistent with moderate genetic and/or familial environmental effects on gender nonconformity. Unlike results of smaller past studies, discordant pairs also yielded modest positive, though nonsignificant, correlations. Our results support the feasibility of supplementing genetic studies of male sexual orientation with analyses of gender nonconformity variation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2461-2468
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Sexual Behavior
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020


  • Familiality
  • Gender nonconformity
  • Genetics
  • Homosexuality
  • Sexual orientation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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