Lactobacillus species may translocate from the gastrointestinal tract into systemic circulation from ingested probiotics or commensal flora. Their pathogenic potential is still debated. Lactobacillus endocarditis is a rare entity with only around 120 cases reported in the literature. Here, we report the first case of fatal Lactobacillus endocarditis with involvement of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the following goals: To reaffirm the pathological significance of Lactobacillus spp, to demonstrate the potential limitations of the modified Duke criteria in diagnosing infective endocarditis of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and to urge clinicians to aggressively search for and consider empiric treatment for endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valves who develop Lactobacillus bacteraemia.
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