FDTD modeling of a novel ELF radar for major oil deposits using a three-dimensional geodesic grid of the earth-ionosphere waveguide

Jamesina J. Simpson*, Ross P. Heikes, Allen Taflove

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper reports the first application of an optimized geodesic, three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) grid to model impulsive, extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic wave propagation within the entire Earth-ionosphere cavity. This new model, which complements our previously reported efficient 3-D latitude-longitude grid, is comprised entirely of hexagonal cells except for a small, fixed number of pentagonal cells. Grid-cell areas and locations are optimized to yield a smoothly varying area difference between adjacent cells, thereby maximizing numerical convergence. Extending from 100 km below sea level to an altitude of 100 km, this technique can accommodate arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities/anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. We first verify the global model by comparing the FDTD-calculated daytime ELF propagation attenuation with data reported in the literature. Then as one example application of this grid, we illustrate a novel ELF radar for major oil deposits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1734-1741
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Volume54
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006

Keywords

  • Earth
  • Extremely low-frequency (ELF)
  • Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)
  • Geodesic grid
  • Oil field
  • Propagation attenuation
  • Radar
  • Sphere
  • Ultra-low frequency (ULF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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