Fetal cells in maternal blood: Recovery by charge flow separation

Stephen S. Wachtel*, David Sammons, Michael Manley, Gwendolyn Wachtel, Garland Twitty, Joseph Utermohlen, Owen P. Phillips, Lee P. Shulman, Douglas J. Taron, Uwe R. Müller, Peter Koeppen, Teresa M. Ruffalo, Karen Addis, Richard Porreco, Joyce Murata-Collins, Natalie B. Parker, Loris McGavran

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Fetal blood cells can be recovered from the maternal circulation by charge flow separation (CFS), a method that obviates the risks associated with amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. By CFS, we processed blood samples from 13 women carrying male fetuses, 2 carrying fetuses with trisomy 21, and 1 who had delivered a stillborn infant with trisomy 18. On average more than 2000 fetal nucleated red blood cells were recovered per 20-ml sample of maternal blood. Recovery of fetal cells was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for chromosomes Y, 18 and 21. After culturing of CFS-processed cells, amplification by the polymerase chain reaction revealed Y-chromosomal DNA in clones from four of six women bearing male fetuses, but not in clones from three women bearing female fetuses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)162-166
Number of pages5
JournalHuman Genetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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