Fetal sex chromosome testing by maternal plasma DNA sequencing: Clinical laboratory experience and biology

Diana W. Bianchi, Saba Parsa, Sucheta Bhatt, Meredith Halks-Miller, Kathryn Kurtzman, Amy J. Sehnert, Amy Swanson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:: To describe the clinical experience with noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal sex chromosomes using sequencing of maternal plasma cell-free DNA in a commercial laboratory. METHODS:: A noninvasive prenatal testing laboratory data set was examined for samples in which fetal sex chromosomes were reported. Available clinical outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS:: Of 18,161 samples with sex chromosome results, no sex chromosome aneuploidy was detected in 98.9% and the fetal sex was reported as XY (9,236) or XX (8,721). In 4 of 32 cases in which the fetal sex was reportedly discordant between noninvasive prenatal testing and karyotype or ultrasonogram, a potential biological reason for the discordance exists, including two cases of documented co-twin demise, one case of a maternal kidney transplant from a male donor, and one case of fetal ambiguous genitalia. In the remaining 204 samples (1.1%), one of four sex chromosome aneuploidies (monosomy X, XXX, XXY, or XYY) was detected. The frequency of false positive results for sex chromosome aneuploidies is a minimum of 0.26% and a maximum of 1.05%. All but one of the discordant sex chromosome aneuploidy results involved the X chromosome. In two putative false-positive XXX cases, maternal XXX was confirmed by karyotype. For the false-positive cases, mean maternal age was significantly higher in monosomy X (P<.001) and lower in XXX (P=.008). CONCLUSION:: Noninvasive prenatal testing results for sex chromosome aneuploidy can be confounded by maternal or fetal biological phenomena. When a discordant noninvasive prenatal testing result is encountered, resolution requires additional maternal history, detailed fetal ultrasonography, and determination of fetal and possibly maternal karyotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-382
Number of pages8
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Volume125
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 6 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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