Fibrinogen-like protein 2: Its biological function across cell types and the potential to serve as an immunotherapy target for brain tumors

Sheng Zhang, Ganesh Rao, Amy Heimberger, Shulin Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Brain tumors are among the 10 leading causes of cancer-related death and present unique treatment challenges due to their critical location, genetic heterogeneity, and the blood-brain barrier. Recent advances in targeted immunotherapy and immune checkpoint blocking therapy provide alternative therapeutic strategies for brain tumors. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2), which induces transformation from low-grade glioma to high-grade glioblastoma, is a type II membrane protein that is highly expressed in both host immune cells and tumor cells. Studies have uncovered multiple forms of FGL2 proteins with a broad range of roles in inducing immune tolerance and avoiding immune surveillance in tumor cells. Of note, presence of FGL2 transforms low grade to high grade brain tumors via promoting Treg, macrophages, and perhaps stemness. Absence (knockout) of FGL2 in tumor cells (not in host cells) induces CD103 DC cells, which triggers tumor specific CD8 +T cell activity to reject brain tumor progression. Immunotherapies targeting FGL2 have shown great promise in improving survival time in murine models. In this article, we will summarize the biological function of FGL2 in immune and tumor cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Brain tumors
  • Fibrinogen-like protein 2
  • Immunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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