Film formation mechanisms in mixed-dimensional 2D/3D halide perovskite films revealed by in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering

Justin M. Hoffman, Ido Hadar, Xiaotong Li, Weijun Ke, Eugenia S. Vasileiadou, Joseph Strzalka, Lin X. Chen, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mixed-dimensional 2D/3D hybrid halide perovskites retain the stability of 2D perovskites (formula (A′)2(A)n−1PbnI3n+1) and long diffusion lengths of the 3D materials (AMX3), thereby affording devices with extended stability as well as state-of-the art efficiencies approaching those of the 3D materials. These films are made by spin-coating precursor solutions with an arbitrarily large average layer thickness n (⟨n⟩ > 7) to give films with both 2D and 3D phases. Although the 2D and 3D perovskite film formation mechanisms have been studied, little is understood about composite 2D/3D film formation. We used in-situ grazing-incidence wide-angle scattering with synchrotron radiation to characterize the films fabricated from precursor solutions with stoichiometries of (BA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1 (⟨n⟩ = 3, 4, 5, 7, 12, 50, and ∞ (MAPbI3)). Four different mechanisms are seen depending on the stoichiometry in the precursor solution. Kinetic analysis shows faster and earlier growth of the solvate with increasing ⟨n⟩.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1067-1082
Number of pages16
JournalChem
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 14 2022

Keywords

  • GIWAXS
  • SDG7: Affordable and clean energy
  • kinetics
  • mechanism
  • perovskites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Materials Chemistry

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