Final results of the Maryland WIC 5-a-day promotion program

Stephen Havas*, Jean Anliker, Dorothy Damron, Patricia Langenberg, Michael Ballesteros, Robert Feldman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Objectives. This National Cancer Institute-funded study sought to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among women served by the WIC program in Maryland. Methods. Over a 2-year period, a multifaceted intervention program using a randomized crossover design sought to increase fruit and vegetable consumption at 16 WIC program sites in Baltimore City and 6 Maryland counties. Participants were surveyed at baseline, 2 months postintervention, and 1 year later. Results. Two months postintervention, mean daily consumption had increased by 0.56 ± 0.11 servings in intervention participants and 0.13 ± 0.07 servings in control participants (P = .002). Intervention participants also showed greater changes in stages of change, knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Changes in consumption were closely related to number of nutrition sessions attended, baseline stage of change, race, and education. One year later, mean consumption had increased by an additional 0.27 servings in both intervention and control participants. Conclusions. Dietary changes to prevent cancer can be achieved and sustained in this hard-to-reach, low-income population. However, many obstacles must be overcome to achieve such changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1161-1167
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of public health
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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