Finding gender advantage and disadvantage: Systematic research integration is the solution

Alice H Eagly*, Linda L. Carli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

90 Scopus citations


In this article, we respond to Vecchio's [Leadersh. Q., 14 (2003)] critique of Eagly and Carli's [Leadersh. Q., 14 (2003)] arguments concerning female leaders' relative advantage and disadvantage. We support Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, and van Engen's [Psychol. Bull., 95 (2003) 569] conclusions about leadership style and show that the areas of leadership style in which women exceed men are associated with gains in leader effectiveness, whereas the areas in which men exceed women have negative or null relations to effectiveness. We point out flaws in Vecchio's understanding of the methodology by which researchers integrate research findings across studies and elucidate several essential principles of valid research integration. Our analysis strengthens Eagly and Carli's conclusion that female leaders, relative to male leaders, are correctly described as possessing both advantage and disadvantage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)851-859
Number of pages9
JournalLeadership Quarterly
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2003


  • Gender
  • Leadership style
  • Meta-analysis
  • Prejudice
  • Sex difference

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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