Finding the ideal biomaterial for aortic valve repair with ex vivo porcine left heart simulator and finite element modeling

Hadi Daood Toeg, Ovais Abessi, Talal Al-Atassi, Laurent De Kerchove, Gebrine El-Khoury, Michel Labrosse, Munir Boodhwani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Results: The geometric orifice areas after repair were significantly reduced in the Hemashield (P < .05) and CorMatrix (P = .0001) groups. Left ventricular work increased with increasing cardiac output (P = .001) in unrepaired valves, as expected, and was similar among all biomaterial groups. Finite element modeling of the biomaterials displayed differences in the percentage of changes in total Von Mises stress for both replaced (noncoronary cusp) and nonreplaced left and right cusps with the St Jude Medical pericardial patch (+4%, +24%) and autologous porcine pericardium (+5, +26%), with a lower percentage of changes than for the bovine pericardial patch (+12%, +27%), Hemashield (+30%, +9%), and CorMatrix (+13%, +32%).

Objectives: Aortic valve (AV) repair (AVr) has become an attractive alternative to A Vreplacement for the correction of aortic insufficiency; however, little clinical evidence exists in determining which biomaterial atAVr would be optimal. Cusp replacement in AVr has been associated with increased long-termAVr failure.We measured the hemodynamic and biomaterial properties using an ex vivo porcine AVr model with clinically relevant biomaterials and generated a finite element model to ascertain which materials would be best suited for valve repair.

Methods: Porcine aortic roots with intact AVs were placed in a left heart simulator mounted with a high-speed camera for baseline valve assessment. The noncoronary cusp was excised and replaced with autologous porcine pericardium, glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardial patch (Synovis), extracelluar matrix scaffold (CorMatrix), or collagen-impregnated Dacron (Hemashield). The hemodynamic parameters were measured for a range of cardiac outputs (2.5-6.5 L/min) after repair. The biomaterial properties and St Jude Medical pericardial patch were determined using pressurization experiments. Finite element models of the AV and root complex were constructed to determine the hemodynamic characteristics and leaflet stresses.

Conclusions: The present study has shown that postrepair left ventricular work did not increase despite a decrease in geometric orifice areas in the Hemashield and CorMatrix groups. The autologous porcine pericardium and St Jude Medical pericardial patch had the closest profile to normal AVs; therefore, either biomaterial might be best suited. Finally, the increased stresses found in the bovine pericardial patch, Hemashield, and CorMatrix groups might, after prolonged tensile exposure, be associated with late repair failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1739-1745.e1
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume148
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

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