First-line Systemic Treatment of Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Primary or Salvage Local Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Adam B. Weiner, Aisha L. Siebert, Sarah E. Fenton, Wassim Abida, Neeraj Agarwal, Ian D. Davis, Tanya B. Dorff, Martin Gleave, Nicholas D. James, Darren M.C. Poon, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Christopher J. Sweeney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


CONTEXT: Several studies have investigated selection and sequencing of systemic agents to manage recurrent prostate cancer following local definitive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence of recurrent prostate cancer in different countries, and systematically review management options and efficacy of first-line systemic therapies for patients with prostate cancer previously treated with definitive radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic review of studies published from January 2010 to December 2021 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, or according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Quality was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. The potential regional burdens of recurrent prostate cancer were estimated by analyzing various regional registry data. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria and an additional landmark study published after the query was included in this review. Patients with metastatic recurrent disease derive benefit from the addition of androgen receptor signaling inhibitors to androgen deprivation therapy, while docetaxel should be reserved for patients with a high-volume metastatic burden by conventional imaging. Patients with biochemical-only recurrent disease benefit from continuous or intermittent androgen deprivation therapy if they possess high-risk features such as short prostate-specific antigen doubling time or high serum prostate-specific antigen. Current limitations to the published literature include no consideration of contemporary positron emission tomography imaging for evaluating metastatic recurrence or burden and few quality of life assessments. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review summarizes the findings and recommendations for first-line systemic therapy for patients with recurrent prostate cancer following local therapy. PATIENT SUMMARY: We performed a systematic evaluation and summary of all studies published within the past decade on the topic of medications used to treat prostate cancer after it has recurred following radiation therapy or surgery. This review can be used to inform guidelines for prostate cancer management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-387
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Urology Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022


  • Androgen deprivation therapy
  • Biochemical recurrence
  • Castration sensitive
  • Hormone sensitive
  • Hormone therapy
  • Metachronous
  • Metastatic
  • Prostatic neoplasms
  • Systematic review
  • Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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