Flexibility in metal forming

D. Y. Yang*, M. Bambach, J. Cao, J. R. Duflou, P. Groche, T. Kuboki, A. Sterzing, A. E. Tekkaya, C. W. Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations


Flexibility in metal forming is needed more than ever before due to rapidly changing customer demands. It paves the way for a better control of uncertainties in development and application of metal forming processes. Although flexibility has been pursued from various viewpoints in terms of machines, material, process, working environment and properties, etc., a thorough study of the concept was undertaken in order to with problems of manufacturing competiveness and tackle new challenges of manufacturing surroundings. Therefore, in this paper, flexibility in forming is reviewed from the viewpoints of process, material, manufacturing environment, new process combinations and machine–system–software interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)743-765
Number of pages23
JournalCIRP Annals
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Flexibility
  • Manufacturing
  • Metal forming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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