Flexible electronic/optoelectronic microsystems with scalable designs for chronic biointegration

Enming Song, Chia Han Chiang, Rui Li, Xin Jin, Jianing Zhao, Mackenna Hill, Yu Xia, Lizhu Li, Yuming Huang, Sang Min Won, Ki Jun Yu, Xing Sheng, Hui Fang, Muhammad Ashraful Alam, Yonggang Huang, Jonathan Viventi, Jan Kai Chang*, John A. Rogers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Flexible biocompatible electronic systems that leverage key materials and manufacturing techniques associated with the consumer electronics industry have potential for broad applications in biomedicine and biological research. This study reports scalable approaches to technologies of this type where thin microscale device components integrate onto flexible polymer substrates in interconnected arrays to provide multimodal high performance operational capabilities as intimately coupled biointerfaces. Specificially the material options and engineering schemes summarized here serve as foundations for diverse heterogeneously integrated systems. Scaled examples incorporate >32,000 silicon microdie and inorganic microscale light-emitting diodes derived from wafer sources distributed at variable pitch spacings and fill factors across large areas on polymer films at full organ-scale dimensions such as human brain over ~150 cm2. In vitro studies and accelerated testing in simulated biofluids together with theoretical simulations of underlying processes yield quantitative insights into the key materials aspects. The results suggest an ability of these systems to operate in a biologically safe stable fashion with projected lifetimes of several decades without leakage currents or reductions in performance. The versatility of these combined concepts suggests applicability to many classes of biointegrated semiconductor devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15398-15406
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number31
StatePublished - Jul 30 2019


  • Bioelectronics
  • Biomedical implants
  • Electrocorticography
  • Flexible electronics
  • Heterogeneous integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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