Fluidized electrocatalysis

Yi Ge Zhou*, Yijin Kang*, Jiaxing Huang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Particle-based electrocatalysts need to be glued on an electrode, where fast and slow steps of the reaction are spatially and temporally convoluted near the particles. Since the particles are under continuous electrochemical stress, decay in their catalytic performance (a.k.a., fatigue) often occurs due to degradation of the active materials, detachment of particles and deteriorating kinetics. Here we report that these problems are well addressed by fluidizing the particles. The catalysts, instead of being fixed on an electrode, are now fluidized in the electrolyte. Reaction occurs when individual particles collide with the electrode, which collectively delivers a continuous, scalable and stable electrochemical current. Since the catalysts now work in rotation, they experience much faster kinetics and avoid the buildup of excessive electrochemical stress, leading to orders of magnitude higher particle-average efficiency and greatly enhanced fatigue resistance. Proof-ofconcepts are demonstrated using Pt/C catalysts for three well-known reactions, including oxygen evolution, hydrogen evolution and methanol oxidation reactions, all of which suffer severe performance decay using Pt/C under different mechanisms. Fluidized electrocatalysis breaks the spatial and temporal continuum of electrocatalytic reactions, and makes them drastically more fatigue resistant. It is material- and reaction-agnostic, and should be a general approach to enhance electrocatalytic reactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-41
Number of pages11
JournalCCS Chemistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • Electrocatalyst stability
  • Fatigue-resistance
  • Fluidized electrocatalysis
  • Reaction time scale
  • Single particle reactions
  • Transient current

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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