Flying plasmonic lens in the near field for high-speed nanolithography

Werayut Srituravanich, Liang Pan, Yuan Wang, Cheng Sun, David B. Bogy, Xiang Zhang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

308 Scopus citations


The commercialization of nanoscale devices requires the development of high-throughput nanofabrication technologies that allow frequent design changes. Maskless nanolithography, including electron-beam and scanning-probe lithography, offers the desired flexibility but is limited by low throughput. Here, we report a new low-cost, high-throughput approach to maskless nanolithography that uses an array of plasmonic lenses that 'flies' above the surface to be patterned, concentrating short-wavelength surface plasmons into sub-100 nm spots. However, these nanoscale spots are only formed in the near field, which makes it very difficult to scan the array above the surface at high speed. To overcome this problem we have designed a self-spacing air bearing that can fly the array just 20 nm above a disk that is spinning at speeds of between 4 and 12 m s -1 , and have experimentally demonstrated patterning with a linewidth of 80 nm. This low-cost nanofabrication scheme has the potential to achieve throughputs that are two to five orders of magnitude higher than other maskless techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)733-737
Number of pages5
JournalNature nanotechnology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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