Background.: Children who have undergone the arterial switch operation (ASO) are at risk for premature coronary artery disease due to coronary re-implantation. Obesity may also pose cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate comorbidities and markers of early cardiovascular disease in obese ASO patients. Methods.: Obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th %] and normal weight (NW, BMI < 85th %) ASO patients, and NW controls without heart disease were enrolled, and underwent prospective vascular, echocardiographic, laboratory, exercise, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) testing. Results were compared between groups. BP load was defined as proportion of recordings ≥ 95th %. Results.: Thirty patients [13.2 years (11.2-16.8), 57% male] were evaluated: 10 obese ASO, 10 NW ASO, and 10 NW controls. Obese ASO patients, in comparison to NW ASO and controls, had higher systolic BP% [96% (90-99) vs. 67% (30-91) P= 0.07 (trend) and 34% (21-43) P= 0.005], night-time diastolic BP load [18% (14-24) vs. 0% (0-0) P= 0.01 and 0% (0-0) P= 0.01], left ventricular mass index [51.7 g/m2.7 (46.6-53.3) vs. 40.7 g/m2.7 (29.2-41.6) P < 0.01 and 28.9 g/m2.7 (27.3-33.7) P < 0.01], and lower brachial artery reactivity [8.7% (6.2-11.9) vs. 14.6% (10.8-23.0) P= 0.03, and 16.7% (12.8-17.8) P= 0.05]. There was a trend toward increased carotid intima-media thickness, and significantly higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein levels in obese ASO patients. Conclusions.: Following the ASO, obese patients have associated comorbidities, and markers of early cardiovascular disease. These may pose additional risk for future cardiovascular events in this unique population who underwent coronary artery re-implantation in infancy.
- Heart defects
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine