Food insecurity, but not HIV-infection status, is associated with adverse changes in body composition during lactation in Ugandan women of mixed HIV status

Elizabeth M. Widen, Shalean M. Collins, Hijab Khan, Claire Biribawa, Daniel Acidri, Winifred Achoko, Harriet Achola, Shibani Ghosh, Jeffrey K. Griffiths, Sera L. Young*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Body composition is an important indicator of nutritional status and health. How body composition changes during 12 mo of breastfeeding in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unknown. Objective: We assessed whether HIVor food insecurity was associated with adverse postpartum body-composition changes in Ugandan women. Design: A cohort of 246 women [36.5% of whom were HIV positive (HIV+) and were receiving ART] were followed to 12 mo postpartum. Repeated measures included weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, midupper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness [which allowed for the derivation of arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA)], breastfeeding, and individual food insecurity. Longitudinal regression models were constructed to assess associations between HIVand food insecurity and changes in body composition over time. Results: At baseline, HIV+ women compared with HIV-negative women had a higher mean 6 SD food-insecurity score (11.3 ± 5.5 compared with 8.6 ± 5.5, respectively; P < 0.001) and lower AMA (40.6 ± 5.7 compared with 42.9 ± 6.9 cm3, respectively; P = 0.03). Participants were thin at 1 wk postpartum [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 22.9 ± 2.9]. From 1 wk to 12 mo, the weight change was 21.4 ± 4.4 kg. In longitudinal models of body-composition outcomes, HIV was not associated with body composition (all P. 0.05), whereas food insecurity was inversely associated with body weight and BMI at 6, 9, and 12 mo and with AFA at ± and 12 mo (all P < 0.05). At ± mo, every 1-unit increase in the food-insecurity score was associated with a 0.13-kg lower body weight (P < 0.001) and a 0.26-cm3 lower AFA (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Body-composition changes are minimal during lactation. HIV is not associated with body composition; however, food insecurity is associated with changes in body composition during lactation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT02922829 and NCT02925429.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-368
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume105
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Keywords

  • BMI
  • Body composition
  • Postpartum
  • Pregnancy
  • Uganda

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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