Objective: To explore the relationship among gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, immune response, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) in food protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) in relation to the current understanding of disease phenotype and pathogenesis. Data Sources: Relevant studies related to FPIES, GI symptomatology, and ANS were reviewed. Literature search was performed using PubMed, with keyword combinations including but not limited to FPIES, allergic GI disorders, ANS, autonomic dysfunction, dysautonomia, GI, diarrhea, vomiting, neuroimmune, and clinical phenotyping tools. Study Selections: Peer-reviewed case-control studies, observational studies, reviews and guidelines, and systematic reviews related to FPIES and ANS were selected for review. Results: There is limited research directly relating GI symptoms and FPIES to the ANS and immunologic response. To support the proposed mechanisms of action related to patient symptoms, studies relevant to coexisting GI-autonomic processes and FPIES immunologic triggers were examined. These related disease processes were extrapolated to FPIES based on the current knowledge of FPIES phenotype and pathogenesis. Conclusion: The etiology of FPIES and the underlying mechanisms triggering symptoms are not well understood. On the basis of the exaggerated GI symptoms and hemodynamic response observed, the ANS likely plays an important role in FPIES, possibly as a compensatory response. The trigger for this cascade of symptoms may be related to the disruption of immunologic homeostasis that typically contributes to immune tolerance. To more accurately evaluate FPIES pathophysiology necessitates understanding the diverse spectrum of presenting symptoms. A consistent and comprehensive symptom assessment tool may improve our understanding of this dynamic relationship.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine