Formation of nasal polyps: The roles of innate type 2 inflammation and deposition of fibrin

Tetsuji Takabayashi*, Robert P. Schleimer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disease, and geographical or ethnic differences in inflammatory pattern in nasal mucosa are major issues. Tissue eosinophilia in CRS is highly associated with extensive sinus disease, recalcitrance, and a higher nasal polyp (NP) recurrence rate after surgery. The prevalence of eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) is increasing in Asian countries within the last 2 decades, and this trend appears to be occurring across the world. International consensus criteria for ECRS are required for the accurate understanding of disease pathology and precision medicine. In a multicenter large-scale epidemiological survey, the “Japanese Epidemiological Survey of Refractory Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis study,” ECRS was definitively defined when the eosinophil count in nasal mucosa is greater than or equal to 70 eosinophils/hpf (magnification, ×400), and this study proposed an algorithm that classifies CRS into 4 groups according to disease severity. The main therapeutic goal with ECRS is to eliminate or diminish the bulk of NP tissue. NPs are unique abnormal lesions that grow from the lining of the nasal and paranasal sinuses, and type 2 inflammation plays a critical role in NP development in patients with ECRS. An imbalance between protease and endogenous protease inhibitors might play a pivotal role in the initiation and exacerbation of type 2 inflammation in ECRS. Intraepithelial mast cells in NPs, showing a tryptase+, chymase− phenotype, may also enhance type 2 inflammation. Intense edema and reduced fibrosis are important histological features of eosinophilic NPs. Mucosal edema mainly consists of exuded plasma protein, and excessive fibrin deposition would be expected to contribute to the retention of proteins from capillaries and thereby perpetuate mucosal edema that may play an etiological role in NPs. Upregulation of the coagulation cascade and downregulation of fibrinolysis strongly induce abnormal fibrin deposition in nasal mucosa, and type 2 inflammation plays a central role in the imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)740-750
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Chronic rhinosinusitis
  • coagulation cascade
  • fibrin
  • fibrinolysis
  • mast cell
  • nasal polyps
  • tissue plasminogen activator
  • tryptase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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