The promotion of well-being among youth in foster care, over and above safety and permanency, has become an important focus of the child welfare system over the past decade. This chapter briefly reviews the history of foster care in the United States using a child well-being lens, reviews the efficacy of programs designed to promote well-being for youth in foster care, and discusses the challenges and successes of adapting existing evidence-based programs for this population. The chapter concludes that although there have been some programs which have demonstrated efficacy in improving social, emotional, and behavioral functioning among children in care, there are not nearly enough evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of these youth and their families. Recommendations include the continued development and rigorous testing of innovative programs designed for this population as well as the testing of sensitive adaptations of evidence-based interventions designed for other populations. There is also the need for programs that work across the developmental spectrum and in different placement settings, and programs which aim to promote positive youth development, not just ameliorate problems. Children who are placed in foster care deserve contextually- and culturally-sensitive programming with demonstrated efficacy in promoting their well-being.