Four-dimensional impedance manometry volume metrics for predicting abnormal bolus retention

Panyavee Pitisuttithum, Eric Goudie, Isis K. Araujo, Sourav Halder, Dustin Allan Carlson, John E. Pandolfino, Wenjun Kou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The objective measurement for esophageal bolus volume and bolus clearance could classify abnormal high-resolution manometry (HRM) beyond the current Chicago classification. We aimed to compare the novel four-dimensional impedance manometry (4D HRM) volume metrics with timed barium esophagram (TBE). Methods: Adults with esophageal symptoms undergoing HRM and TBE were included. A custom-built program for 4D HRM analysis measured esophageal luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) from impedance and subsequently derived esophageal bolus volume and clearance. 4D HRM volume metrics included pre-swallow residual volume, maximal volume, retention volume, and clearance ratio defined as 1.0—retention volume divided by the maximal volume. An abnormal TBE was defined as a column height >5 cm at 1 min or 5 min. Key Results: A total of 95 patients (normal motility: 33%; ineffective esophageal motility: 12%; absent contractility: 10%; esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction: 30%; type I achalasia: 5%; type II achalasia: 12%) were categorized into normal TBE (58%), abnormal TBE at 1 min (17%), and abnormal TBE at 5 min (25%). The AUROC demonstrated that, among all 4D HRM volume metrics, the clearance ratio had the best performance in predicting abnormal TBE at 5 min (AUROC, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.82–0.96), and exhibited a strong negative correlation with TBE at 5 min (r = −0.65; p < 0.001). Conclusions & Inferences: Novel 4D HRM volume metrics provide objective measurement of esophageal bolus volume and bolus clearance. The clearance ratio has a strong correlation with TBE and could potentially serve as a substitute for TBE to measure esophageal retention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNeurogastroenterology and Motility
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • 4D manometry
  • bolus retention
  • esophageal motility
  • intraluminal impedance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Gastroenterology

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