Frailty, neurocognitive impairment, or both in predicting poor health outcomes among adults living with human immunodeficiency virus

Kristine M. Erlandson*, Jeremiah Perez, Mona Abdo, Kevin Robertson, Ronald J. Ellis, Susan L. Koletar, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J. Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is strongly associated with frailty in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH); the overlap of frailty and NCI and the impact on health outcomes in PLWH are unknown. Methods PLWH in a longitudinal, observational study of aging completed entry evaluations for frailty and NCI. Outcomes of falls (recurrent) increased limitations in independent activities of daily living (IADL), or mortality were combined. Poisson regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for ≥1 outcome over 2 years. Results Among 987 participants, the median age at entry was 51 years; 19% were female; the median CD4 count was 616 cells/μL; and HIV-1 RNA was <200 copies/mL in 94%. Most (79%) participants had neither frailty nor NCI; 2% had both; 4% frailty only; and 15% NCI only. Over 2 years of observation, 100 (10%) participants experienced recurrent falls; 175 (18%) had worsening IADL limitations; 17 (2%) died; and 254 (26%) experienced ≥1 poor health outcome. In adjusted models, frailty with NCI was associated with more than double the risk of a poor health outcome (PR 2.65; 95% CI 1.98, 3.54); a significant association was also seen with frailty alone (PR 2.26; 95%CI 1.71, 2.99) and NCI alone (PR 1.73; 95% CI 1.36, 2.20). Conclusions The presence of frailty with NCI was associated with a greater risk of falls, disability, or death in PLWH than NCI alone. Interventions that target prevention or reversal of both frailty and NCI (such as increased physical activity) may significantly limit poor health outcomes among PLWH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-138
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume68
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • HIV
  • disability
  • falls
  • frailty
  • neurocognitive impairment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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