Framing discrimination: Effects of inclusion versus exclusion mind-sets on stereotypic judgments

Kurt Hugenberg*, Galen V. Bodenhausen, Melissa McLain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Three studies investigated how inclusion versus exclusion strategies differentially lead to stereotypic decisions. In inclusion strategies, suitable targets are selected from a list of candidates, whereas in exclusion strategies, unsuitable candidates are eliminated. Across 2 separate target domains (Study 1: male and female politicians; Studies 2 and 3: African American and European American basketball players), exclusion strategies, as compared with inclusion strategies, elicited higher levels of both sensitivity stereotyping (i.e., greater difficulty distinguishing among members of stereotyped groups) and criterion stereotyping (i.e., setting different decision thresholds for judging members of different groups; see M. R. Banaji & A. G. Greenwald, 1995). Thus, the strategy used during decision making can influence the final decision via 2 theoretically distinct stereotyping mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1020-1031
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2006


  • Decision making
  • Inclusion-exclusion discrepancy
  • Mind-sets
  • Stereotypes/stereotyping
  • Task framing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Framing discrimination: Effects of inclusion versus exclusion mind-sets on stereotypic judgments'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this