Background: Platelet dysfunction following trauma has been identified as an independent predictor of mortality. We hypothesized that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation would attenuate platelet dysfunction compared with 0.9% normal saline (NS). Methods: Twelve swine were subjected to multisystem trauma (traumatic brain injury, liver injury, rib fracture, and soft tissue injury) with hemorrhagic shock (40% of estimated blood volume). Animals were left in shock (mean arterial pressure, 30-35 mm Hg) for 2 hours followed by resuscitation with three times shed volume NS (n = 6) or one times volume FFP (n = 6) and monitored for 6 hours. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation at baseline, after 2 hours of shock following resuscitation, and 6 hours after resuscitation. Fibrinogen levels and markers of platelet activation (transforming growth factor β [TGF-β], sP-Selectin, and CD40L) as well as endothelial injury (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were also assayed. Thromboelastography was used to measure clotting activity. Results: ADP-induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher in the FFP group (46.3 U vs. 25.5 U, p < 0.01) following resuscitation. This was associated with higher fibrinogen levels (202 mg/dL vs. 80 mg/dL, p < 0.01) but lower endothelial activation (VCAM-1, 1.25 ng/mL vs. 3.87 ng/mL, p = 0.05). Other markers did not differ.After 6 hours of observation, ADP-induced platelet aggregation remained higher in the FFP group (53.8 U vs. 37.0 U, p = 0.03) as was fibrinogen levels (229 mg/dL vs. 153 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Endothelial activation was lower (ICAM-1, 21.0 ng/mL vs. 24.4 ng/mL, p = 0.05), whereas TGF-β levels were higher (2,138 pg/mL vs. 1,802 pg/mL, p = 0.03) in the FFP group. Other markers did not differ. Thromboelastography revealed increased clot strength in the FFP group at both postresuscitation time points. Conclusion: Resuscitation with FFP resulted in an immediate and sustained improvement in platelet function and clot strength compared with high-volume NS resuscitation. This was associated with an increase in fibrinogen levels and an attenuation of endothelial activation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine