From Material to Cameras: Low-Dimensional Photodetector Arrays on CMOS

Samaneh Ansari, Simone Bianconi, Chang Mo Kang, Hooman Mohseni*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in research on low-dimensional material with exceptional optoelectronic properties. While low-dimensional materials offer exciting new opportunities for imaging, their integration in practical applications has been slow. In fact, most existing reports are based on single-pixel devices that cannot rival the quantity and quality of information provided by massively parallelized mega-pixel imagers based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. The first goal of this review is to present new opportunities in producing high-resolution cameras using these new materials. New photodetection methods and materials in the field are presented, and the challenges involved in their integration on CMOS chips for making high-resolution cameras are discussed. Practical approaches are then presented to address these challenges and methods to integrate low-dimensional material on CMOS. It is also shown that such integrations could be used for ultra-low noise and massively parallel testing of new material and devices. The second goal of this review is to present the colossal untapped potential of low-dimensional material in enabling the next-generation of low-cost and high-performance cameras. It is proposed that low-dimensional materials have the natural ability to create excellent bio-inspired artificial imaging systems with unique features such as in-pixel computing, multi-band imaging, and curved retinas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSmall Methods
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • CMOS readout integrated circuits
  • bio-inspired imaging
  • infrared cameras
  • low-dimensional materials
  • photodetectors
  • single-photon detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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