Full systems considerations for multiphoton microscopy

D. L. Wokosin, J. M. Girkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A most-important-variables analysis of practical, successful multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy is presented. The key strength of multiphoton imaging localization of the excitation volume-helps to decouple the excitation from the emission; the emission no longer needs to be imaged. The presentation starts with maximizing the detected signal and proceeds to the laser source considerations. The main goal is to match the instrumentation to the biological problem. The main aspects covered are… Emission collection: potential signal Focal plane mismatch: chromatic aberration Light detected: actual signal Live cell imaging: preservation of biological function Deep imaging: preservation of image contrast Signal production: potential limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-237
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2001


  • Confocal
  • Laser scanning fluorescence microscopy
  • Multi-photon excitation
  • Objective lenses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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