Purpose: To identify comorbidities associated with increased rates of functional decline in persons with lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We also determined whether female sex and black race were associated with greater functional decline than male sex and white race, respectively, in PAD. Methods: Three-hundred ninety-seven men and women with PAD were followed prospectively for a median of 36 months. The presence of comorbid illnesses was determined with medical record review, patient report, medications, laboratory values, and a primary care physician questionnaire. Functional outcomes, measured annually, included the 6-minute walk, usual-paced and fast-paced 4-meter walking speed, and summary performance score. The summary performance score is a composite measure of lower-extremity functioning (score range, 0 to 12; 12 = best). Results: Adjusting for known and potential confounders, PAD patients with pulmonary disease had a significantly greater average annual decline in 6-minute walk performance of -34.02 ft/y (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.42 to -7.63; P = .012), rapid-paced 4-meter walk speed of -0.028 m/s/y (95% CI, -0.054 to -0.001; P = .042), and summary performance score of -0.460/y (95% CI, -0.762 to -0.157; P = .003) compared with those without pulmonary disease. PAD patients with spinal stenosis had a greater average annual decline in 6-minute walk performance of -77.4 ft/y (95% CI, -18.9 to -35.8; P < .001) and usual-paced 4-meter walking velocity of -0.045 m/s/y (95% CI, -0.081 to -0.009; P = .014) compared with participants without spinal stenosis. Conclusion: At 3-year follow-up, pulmonary disease and spinal stenosis were each associated with a significant decline in functioning among persons with PAD. In contrast, female sex and black race were not associated with functional decline among persons with PAD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine