Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is primarily caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies against A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats, 13 (ADAMTS13). Nearly all adult idiopathic TTP patients harbor IgGs, which bind the spacer domain of ADAMTS13, a region critical for recognition and proteolysis of von Willebrand factor (VWF). We hypothesize that a modification of an exosite in the spacer domain may generate ADAMTS13 variants with reduced autoantibody binding while preserving or enhancing specific activity. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a series of ADAMTS13 variants, and their functional properties were assessed. Of 24 novel ADAMTS13 variants, 2 (ie, M4, R660K/F592Y/R568K/Y661F and M5, R660K/F592Y/R568K/Y661F/Y665F) exhibited increased specific activity approximately 4-to 5-fold and approximately 10-to 12-fold cleaving a peptide VWF73 substrate and multimeric VWF, respectively. More interestingly, the gain-of-function ADAMTS13 variants were more resistant to inhibition by anti-ADAMTS13 autoanti-bodies from patients with acquired idiopathic TTP because of reduced binding by anti-ADAMTS13 IgGs. These results shed more light on the critical role of the exosite in the spacer domain in substrate recognition. Our findings also help understand the pathogenesis of acquired autoimmune TTP. The autoantibody-resistant ADAMTS13 variants may befurther developed as a novel therapeutic for acquired TTP with inhibitors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology