Gallbladder ejection fraction is unrelated to gallbladder pathology in children and adolescents

Patrick M. Jones*, Marc B. Rosenman, Marian D. Pfefferkorn, Frederick J. Rescorla, William E. Bennett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objectives: Biliary dyskinesia is a common diagnosis that frequently results in cholecystectomy. In adults, most clinicians use a cut off value for the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) of <35% to define the disease. This disorder is not well characterized in children. Our aim was to determine the relation between GBEF and gallbladder pathology using a large statewide medical record repository. Methods: We obtained records from all patients of 21 years and younger who underwent hepatic iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) testing within the Indiana Network for Patient Care from 2004 to 2013. GBEF results were obtained from radiology reports using data mining techniques. Age, sex, race, and insurance status were obtained for each patient. Any gallbladder pathology obtained subsequent to an HIDA scan was also obtained and parsed for mention of cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, or cholesterolosis. We performed mixed effects logistic regression analysis to determine the influence of age, sex, race, insurance status, pathologist, and GBEF on the presence of these histologic findings. Results: Two thousand eight hundred forty-one HIDA scans on 2558 patients were found. Of these, 310 patients had a full-text gallbladder pathology report paired with the HIDA scan. GBEF did not correlate with the presence of gallbladder pathology (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, or cholesterolosis) when controlling for age, sex, race, insurance status, and pathologist using a mixed effects model. Conclusions: Hypokinetic gallbladders are no more likely to have gallbladder pathology than normal or hyperkinetic gallbladders in the setting of a patient with both a HIDA scan and a cholecystectomy. Care should be used when interpreting the results of HIDA scans in children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-75
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016


  • biliary dyskinesia
  • chronic cholecystitis
  • hypercontractile gallbladder
  • hyperkinetic gallbladder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Gastroenterology


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