Gas challenge-blood oxygen level-dependent (GC-BOLD) MRI in the rat Novikoff hepatoma model

Yang Guo, Ning Jin, Rachel Klein, Jodi Nicolai, Guang Yu Yang, Reed A. Omary, Andrew C. Larson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between gas challenge-blood oxygen level-dependent (GC-BOLD) response angiogenesis and tumor size in rat Novikoff hepatoma model. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighting 301-325 g) were used for our Animal Care and Use Committee-approved experiments. N1-S1 Novikoff hepatomas were grown in 14 rats with sizes ranging from 0.42 to 2.81 cm. All experiments were performed at 3.0 T using a custom-built rodent receiver coil. A multiple gradient-echo sequence was used for R2 n measurements, first during room air (78% N 2/20% O 2) breathing and then after 10 min of carbogen (95% O 2/5% CO 2) breathing. After image acquisition, rats were euthanized, and the tumors were harvested for histological evaluation. Results: The R2 n change between air and carbogen breathing for small hepatomas was positive; R2 n changes changed to negative values for larger hepatomas. We found a significant positive correlation between tumor R2 n change and tumor microvessel density (MVD) (r=0.798, P=001) and a significant inverse correlation between tumor R2 n change and tumor size (r=-0.840, P<.0001). Conclusions: GC-BOLD magnetic resonance imaging measurements are well correlated to MVD levels and tumor size in the N1-S1 Novikoff hepatoma model; GC-BOLD measurements may serve as noninvasive biomarkers for evaluating angiogenesis and disease progression and/or therapy response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-138
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Gas challenge-blood oxygen level dependent (GC-BOLD)
  • MRI
  • Rat Novikoff hepatoma
  • Tumor angiogenesis
  • Tumor microvessel density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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