Gas phase oxidation of benzoic acid to phenol over nickel oxide catalysts

V. Duma, K. E. Popp, M. C. Kung, H. Zhou, S. Nguyen, S. Ohyama, H. H. Kung*, C. L. Marshall

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The catalytic conversion of benzoic acid to phenol in the presence of water and oxygen was studied in the vapor phase over nickel oxide on various supports. NiO/SiO2 was the most selective, and the selectivity reached over 50% using iron oxide and sodium oxide modifiers. Ni-Fe oxide prepared by coprecipitation deactivated with time-on-stream, but that prepared using a cellulose templating method was more stable. Benzene was often a significant by-product. Some coupling products were formed, including xanthone, fluorenone, and biphenyl. From deuterium isotope labeling experiments, the hydroxyl group was found to be formed at the carbon next to the one with the carboxylic acid group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-236
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2004


  • Benzoic acid
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Nickel oxide
  • Phenol synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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