Gender and other group differences in performance on off-level tests: Changes in the 21st century

Paula Olszewski-Kubilius, Seon Young Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Using the off-level test scores of more than 250,000 students who participated in talent search testing from 2000 to 2008, this study examined if previously reported gender differences in students' performances in math versus verbal areas as well as the reported ratios of males and females for specific scoring levels still existed across years. Results showed that for the sample of gifted students used in this study, regardless of age, males outperformed females on the math and science subtests with the most pronounced differences on the math subtests, whereas females outperformed males on the verbal subtests. All these differences between genders did not diminish over the 9-year period but were steady with small or negligible effect sizes. The ratios of males to females in specific score ranges on the off-level tests were also steady and consistent, favoring males at the highest end in math and science with the maximum ratio of 3:1 and females at the highest end in verbal areas with the maximum ratio of 2:1. Performance differences by ethnicity and annual household income levels were also found throughout the years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-73
Number of pages20
JournalGifted Child Quarterly
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • gender differences
  • gifted females
  • group differences
  • math and reading subtests
  • off-level tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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