Gender Differences in Utilization of Duty-hour Regulations, Aspects of Burnout, and Psychological Well-being Among General Surgery Residents in the United States

Allison R. Dahlke, Julie K. Johnson, Caprice C. Greenberg, Remi Love, Lindsey Kreutzer, Daniel B. Hewitt, Christopher M. Quinn, Kathryn E. Engelhardt, Karl Y. Bilimoria*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the study was to (1) assess differences in how male and female general surgery residents utilize duty-hour regulations and experience aspects of burnout and psychological well-being, and (2) to explore reasons why these differing experiences exist. Background: There may be differences in how women and men enter, experience, and leave residency programs. Methods: A total of 7395 residents completed a survey (response rate = 99%). Logistic regression models were developed to examine the association between gender and resident outcomes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 faculty and 56 residents. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using a constant comparative approach. Results: Female residents reported more frequently staying in the hospital >28 hours or working >80 hours in a week (≥3 times in a month, P < 0.001) and more frequently feeling fatigued and burned out from their work (P < 0.001), but less frequently "treating patients as impersonal objects" or "not caring what happens" to them (P < 0.001). Women reported more often having experienced many aspects of poor psychological well-being such as feeling unhappy and depressed or thinking of themselves as worthless (P < 0.01). In adjusted analyses, associations remained significant. Themes identified in the qualitative analysis as possible contributory factors to gender differences include a lack of female mentorship/leadership, dual-role responsibilities, gender blindness, and differing pressures and approaches to patient care. Conclusions: Female residents report working more, experiencing certain aspects of burnout more frequently, and having poorer psychological well-being. Qualitative themes provide insights into possible cultural and programmatic shifts to address the concerns for female residents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-211
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of surgery
Volume268
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2018

Keywords

  • burnout
  • gender
  • general surgery
  • mixed methods
  • surgical education
  • well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Gender Differences in Utilization of Duty-hour Regulations, Aspects of Burnout, and Psychological Well-being Among General Surgery Residents in the United States'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this