Objective: To examine associations between urologic subspecialization, surgeon gender and practice patterns among certifying urologists over the last 13 years. Materials and Methods: Demographic data of certifying and recertifying urologists (2004 to 2015) were obtained from the American Board of Urology. We investigated gender-specific trends in self-reported practice type (academic practice, private practice), subspecialization, and employment as a full-time vs part-time physician, relative to certification year and cycle. Results: Of 9140 urologists applying for certification or recertification over the study period, 815 (8.9%) were women. The largest proportion of female surgeon candidates (65.0%) was first-time certifiers. Women represented 16.7% of first-time certifying urologists (P <.001) and reported practicing in academia more frequently (23.6%) compared with 13.7% of men (P <.001). Female surgeons identified as subspecialists in greater numbers (46.4%) than their male counterparts (23.4%) across all certification years and cycle cohorts (P <.001). Women reported subspecializing in female urology (24.2%) and pediatrics (10.2%) at higher frequencies than their male colleagues (4.6% and 3.1% respectively, both P <.001). Female and male surgeon candidates requested certification in equal proportion in andrology and infertility (P =.83) and endourology (3.6% female vs 5.8% male, P =.13), however differed in oncology (4.2% female vs 7.2% male, P =.001). Conclusion: A growing proportion of certifying urologists are women, with the greatest enrichment among those seeking first-time certification. Since 2004, female surgeons account for a disproportionate volume of urologists who practice in the academic setting and identify as subspecialists.
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